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Thematic maps are geographical maps in which spatial data distributions are visualized. This package offers a flexible, layer-based, and easy to use approach to create thematic maps, such as choropleths and bubble maps.
A treemap is a space-filling visualization of hierarchical structures. This package offers great flexibility to draw treemaps.
Thematic Map Tools
Set of tools for reading and processing spatial data. The aim is to supply the workflow to create thematic maps. This package also facilitates 'tmap', the package for visualizing thematic maps.
Tableplot, a Visualization of Large Datasets
A tableplot is a visualisation of a (large) dataset with a dozen of variables, both numeric and categorical. Each column represents a variable and each row bin is an aggregate of a certain number of records. Numeric variables are visualized as bar charts, and categorical variables as stacked bar charts. Missing values are taken into account. Also supports large 'ffdf' datasets from the 'ff' package.
Rendering Parameterized SQL and Translation to Dialects
A rendering tool for parameterized SQL that also translates into different SQL dialects. These dialects include 'Microsoft Sql Server', 'Oracle', 'PostgreSql', 'Amazon RedShift', 'Apache Impala', 'IBM Netezza', 'Google BigQuery', 'Microsoft PDW', and 'SQLite'.
Asynchronous Disk-Based Representation of Massive Data
Storing very large data objects on a local drive, while still making it possible to manipulate the data in an efficient manner.
Memory-Efficient Storage of Large Data on Disk and Fast Access Functions
The ff package provides data structures that are stored on disk but behave (almost) as if they were in RAM by transparently mapping only a section (pagesize) in main memory - the effective virtual memory consumption per ff object. ff supports R's standard atomic data types 'double', 'logical', 'raw' and 'integer' and non-standard atomic types boolean (1 bit), quad (2 bit unsigned), nibble (4 bit unsigned), byte (1 byte signed with NAs), ubyte (1 byte unsigned), short (2 byte signed with NAs), ushort (2 byte unsigned), single (4 byte float with NAs). For example 'quad' allows efficient storage of genomic data as an 'A','T','G','C' factor. The unsigned types support 'circular' arithmetic. There is also support for close-to-atomic types 'factor', 'ordered', 'POSIXct', 'Date' and custom close-to-atomic types. ff not only has native C-support for vectors, matrices and arrays with flexible dimorder (major column-order, major row-order and generalizations for arrays). There is also a ffdf class not unlike data.frames and import/export filters for csv files. ff objects store raw data in binary flat files in native encoding, and complement this with metadata stored in R as physical and virtual attributes. ff objects have well-defined hybrid copying semantics, which gives rise to certain performance improvements through virtualization. ff objects can be stored and reopened across R sessions. ff files can be shared by multiple ff R objects (using different data en/de-coding schemes) in the same process or from multiple R processes to exploit parallelism. A wide choice of finalizer options allows to work with 'permanent' files as well as creating/removing 'temporary' ff files completely transparent to the user. On certain OS/Filesystem combinations, creating the ff files works without notable delay thanks to using sparse file allocation. Several access optimization techniques such as Hybrid Index Preprocessing and Virtualization are implemented to achieve good performance even with large datasets, for example virtual matrix transpose without touching a single byte on disk. Further, to reduce disk I/O, 'logicals' and non-standard data types get stored native and compact on binary flat files i.e. logicals take up exactly 2 bits to represent TRUE, FALSE and NA. Beyond basic access functions, the ff package also provides compatibility functions that facilitate writing code for ff and ram objects and support for batch processing on ff objects (e.g. as.ram, as.ff, ffapply). ff interfaces closely with functionality from package 'bit': chunked looping, fast bit operations and coercions between different objects that can store subscript information ('bit', 'bitwhich', ff 'boolean', ri range index, hi hybrid index). This allows to work interactively with selections of large datasets and quickly modify selection criteria. Further high-performance enhancements can be made available upon request.
Routines for Performing Empirical Calibration of Observational Study Estimates
Routines for performing empirical calibration of observational study estimates. By using a set of negative control hypotheses we can estimate the empirical null distribution of a particular observational study setup. This empirical null distribution can be used to compute a calibrated p-value, which reflects the probability of observing an estimated effect size when the null hypothesis is true taking both random and systematic error into account. A similar approach can be used to calibrate confidence intervals, using both negative and positive controls.
Prediction Model Selection and Performance Evaluation in Multiple Imputed Datasets
Pooling, backward and forward selection of logistic and Cox regression models in
multiply imputed datasets. Backward and forward selection can be done
from the pooled model using Rubin's Rules (RR), the D1, D2, D3 and
the median p-values method. This is also possible for Mixed models.
The models can contain continuous, dichotomous, categorical and restricted
cubic spline predictors and interaction terms between all these type of predictors.
The stability of the models can be evaluated using bootstrapping and cluster
bootstrapping. The package further contains functions to pool the model performance
as ROC/AUC, R-squares, scaled Brier score and calibration plots for logistic
regression models. Internal validation can be done with cross-validation or bootstrapping.
The adjusted intercept after shrinkage of pooled regression coefficients can be obtained.
Backward and forward selection as part of internal validation is possible.
A function to externally validate logistic prediction models in multiple imputed
datasets is available and a function to compare models.
Synthesizing Causal Evidence in a Distributed Research Network
Routines for combining causal effect estimates and study diagnostics across multiple data sites in a distributed study, without sharing patient-level data. Allows for normal and non-normal approximations of the data-site likelihood of the effect parameter.