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Spatial Dependence: Weighting Schemes, Statistics

A collection of functions to create spatial weights matrix
objects from polygon 'contiguities', from point patterns by distance and
tessellations, for summarizing these objects, and for permitting their
use in spatial data analysis, including regional aggregation by minimum
spanning tree; a collection of tests for spatial 'autocorrelation',
including global 'Morans I' and 'Gearys C' proposed by 'Cliff' and 'Ord'
(1973, ISBN: 0850860369) and (1981, ISBN: 0850860814), 'Hubert/Mantel'
general cross product statistic, Empirical Bayes estimates and
'Assunção/Reis' (1999)

Classes and Methods for Spatial Data

Classes and methods for spatial data; the classes document where the spatial location information resides, for 2D or 3D data. Utility functions are provided, e.g. for plotting data as maps, spatial selection, as well as methods for retrieving coordinates, for subsetting, print, summary, etc. From this version, 'rgdal', 'maptools', and 'rgeos' are no longer used at all, see < https://r-spatial.org/r/2023/05/15/evolution4.html> for details.

Spatial Data Analysis

Methods for spatial data analysis with vector (points, lines, polygons) and raster (grid) data. Methods for vector data include geometric operations such as intersect and buffer. Raster methods include local, focal, global, zonal and geometric operations. The predict and interpolate methods facilitate the use of regression type (interpolation, machine learning) models for spatial prediction, including with satellite remote sensing data. Processing of very large files is supported. See the manual and tutorials on < https://rspatial.org/> to get started. 'terra' replaces the 'raster' package ('terra' can do more, and it is faster and easier to use).

Simple Features for R

Support for simple features, a standardized way to encode spatial vector data. Binds to 'GDAL' for reading and writing data, to 'GEOS' for geometrical operations, and to 'PROJ' for projection conversions and datum transformations. Uses by default the 's2' package for spherical geometry operations on ellipsoidal (long/lat) coordinates.

Spatial and Space-Time Point Pattern Analysis

The Splancs package was written as an enhancement to S-Plus for display and analysis of spatial point pattern data; it has been ported to R and is in "maintenance mode".

Choose Univariate Class Intervals

Selected commonly used methods for choosing univariate class intervals for mapping or other graphics purposes.

Interpolation Methods

Bivariate data interpolation on regular and irregular grids, either linear or using splines are the main part of this package. It is intended to provide FOSS replacement functions for the ACM licensed akima::interp and tripack::tri.mesh functions. Linear interpolation is implemented in interp::interp(..., method="linear"), this corresponds to the call akima::interp(..., linear=TRUE) which is the default setting and covers most of akima::interp use cases in depending packages. A re-implementation of Akimas irregular grid spline interpolation (akima::interp(..., linear=FALSE)) is now also available via interp::interp(..., method="akima"). Estimators for partial derivatives are now also available in interp::locpoly(), these are a prerequisite for the spline interpolation. The basic part is a GPLed triangulation algorithm (sweep hull algorithm by David Sinclair) providing the starting point for the irregular grid interpolator. As side effect this algorithm is also used to provide replacements for almost all functions of the tripack package which also suffers from the same ACM license restrictions. All functions are designed to be backward compatible with their akima / tripack counterparts.

Spatial Regression Analysis

A collection of all the estimation functions for spatial cross-sectional models (on lattice/areal data using spatial weights matrices) contained up to now in 'spdep'. These model fitting functions include maximum likelihood methods for cross-sectional models proposed by 'Cliff' and 'Ord' (1973, ISBN:0850860369) and (1981, ISBN:0850860814), fitting methods initially described by 'Ord' (1975)

Map Projections

Converts latitude/longitude into projected coordinates.

Bitmap Images / Pixel Maps

Functions for import, export, plotting and other manipulations of bitmapped images.