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Bindings for the 'Geospatial' Data Abstraction Library

Provides bindings to the 'Geospatial' Data Abstraction Library ('GDAL') (>= 1.11.4) and access to projection/transformation operations from the 'PROJ' library. Please note that 'rgdal' will be retired by the end of 2023, plan transition to sf/stars/'terra' functions using 'GDAL' and 'PROJ' at your earliest convenience. Use is made of classes defined in the 'sp' package. Raster and vector map data can be imported into R, and raster and vector 'sp' objects exported. The 'GDAL' and 'PROJ' libraries are external to the package, and, when installing the package from source, must be correctly installed first; it is important that 'GDAL' < 3 be matched with 'PROJ' < 6. From 'rgdal' 1.5-8, installed with to 'GDAL' >=3, 'PROJ' >=6 and 'sp' >= 1.4, coordinate reference systems use 'WKT2_2019' strings, not 'PROJ' strings. 'Windows' and 'macOS' binaries (including 'GDAL', 'PROJ' and their dependencies) are provided on 'CRAN'.

Interface to Geometry Engine - Open Source ('GEOS')

Interface to Geometry Engine - Open Source ('GEOS') using the C 'API' for topology operations on geometries. Please note that 'rgeos' will be retired by the end of 2023, plan transition to sf functions using 'GEOS' at your earliest convenience. The 'GEOS' library is external to the package, and, when installing the package from source, must be correctly installed first. Windows and Mac Intel OS X binaries are provided on 'CRAN'. ('rgeos' >= 0.5-1): Up to and including 'GEOS' 3.7.1, topological operations succeeded with some invalid geometries for which the same operations fail from and including 'GEOS' 3.7.2. The 'checkValidity=' argument defaults and structure have been changed, from default FALSE to integer default '0L' for 'GEOS' < 3.7.2 (no check), '1L' 'GEOS' >= 3.7.2 (check and warn). A value of '2L' is also provided that may be used, assigned globally using 'set_RGEOS_CheckValidity(2L)', or locally using the 'checkValidity=2L' argument, to attempt zero-width buffer repair if invalid geometries are found. The previous default (FALSE, now '0L') is fastest and used for 'GEOS' < 3.7.2, but will not warn users of possible problems before the failure of topological operations that previously succeeded. From 'GEOS' 3.8.0, repair of geometries may also be attempted using 'gMakeValid()', which may, however, return a collection of geometries of different types.

Tools for Handling Spatial Objects

Please note that 'maptools' will be retired by the end of 2023, plan transition at your earliest convenience; some functionality will be moved to 'sp'. Set of tools for manipulating geographic data. It includes binary access to 'GSHHG' shoreline files. The package also provides interface wrappers for exchanging spatial objects with packages such as 'PBSmapping', 'spatstat.geom', 'maps', and others.

Spatial Dependence: Weighting Schemes, Statistics

A collection of functions to create spatial weights matrix
objects from polygon 'contiguities', from point patterns by distance and
tessellations, for summarizing these objects, and for permitting their
use in spatial data analysis, including regional aggregation by minimum
spanning tree; a collection of tests for spatial 'autocorrelation',
including global 'Morans I' and 'Gearys C' proposed by 'Cliff' and 'Ord'
(1973, ISBN: 0850860369) and (1981, ISBN: 0850860814), 'Hubert/Mantel'
general cross product statistic, Empirical Bayes estimates and
'Assunção/Reis' (1999)

Classes and Methods for Spatial Data

Classes and methods for spatial data; the classes document where the spatial location information resides, for 2D or 3D data. Utility functions are provided, e.g. for plotting data as maps, spatial selection, as well as methods for retrieving coordinates, for subsetting, print, summary, etc.

Spatial and Space-Time Point Pattern Analysis

The Splancs package was written as an enhancement to S-Plus for display and analysis of spatial point pattern data; it has been ported to R and is in "maintenance mode".

Choose Univariate Class Intervals

Selected commonly used methods for choosing univariate class intervals for mapping or other graphics purposes.

Simple Features for R

Support for simple features, a standardized way to encode spatial vector data. Binds to 'GDAL' for reading and writing data, to 'GEOS' for geometrical operations, and to 'PROJ' for projection conversions and datum transformations. Uses by default the 's2' package for spherical geometry operations on ellipsoidal (long/lat) coordinates.

Map Projections

Converts latitude/longitude into projected coordinates.

Bitmap Images / Pixel Maps

Functions for import, export, plotting and other manipulations of bitmapped images.