Data sets and utilities from Project MOSAIC (< http://mosaic-web.org>) used to teach mathematics, statistics, computation and modeling. Funded by the NSF, Project MOSAIC is a community of educators working to tie together aspects of quantitative work that students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics will need in their professional lives, but which are usually taught in isolation, if at all.

The mosaic package is designed to facilitate the use of R in statistics and calculus instruction by providing a number of functions that (a) make many common tasks fit into a common template, and (b) simplify some tasks that would otherwise be too complicated for beginners.

You install from CRAN using

`install.packages("mosaic")`

or from github with

`devtools::install_github("ProjectMOSAIC/mosaic")`

If you want to try out our developmental code (the beta branch), use

`devtools::install_github("ProjectMOSAIC/mosaic", ref="beta")`

Updates to the master github repository are more frequent than CRAN updates. Our beta branch is where we implement bug fixes most quickly and develop new features. We try to keep it pretty stable, but there may be a few rough edges, missing documentation, etc. while things are in progress.

If you discover a problem with any version of the package, be sure to let us know so that we can address it. Post an issue on github or send email to `[email protected]`

.

The package includes several vignettes to help you get started. One of these
vignettes
(*Resources Related to the mosaic package*) includes a list of many resources, both within the
package and external to it. That's a good place to start.

Need help? Try posting a question on Stack Overflow using the tag r-mosaic.

Project MOSAIC is a community of educators working to develop a new way to introduce mathematics, statistics, computation and modeling to students in colleges and universities.

Our goal: Provide a broader approach to quantitative studies that provides better support for work in science and technology. The focus of the project is to tie together better diverse aspects of quantitative work that students in science, technology, and engineering will need in their professional lives, but which are today usually taught in isolation, if at all.

- Modeling. The ability to create, manipulate and investigate useful and informative mathematical representations of a real-world situations.
- Statistics. The analysis of variability that draws on our ability to quantify uncertainty and to draw logical inferences from observations and experiment.
- Computation. The capacity to think algorithmically, to manage data on large scales, to visualize and interact with models, and to automate tasks for efficiency, accuracy, and reproducibility.
- Calculus. The traditional mathematical entry point for college and university students and a subject that still has the potential to provide important insights to today's students.

The name MOSAIC reflects the first letters --- M, S, C, C --- of these important components of a quantitative education. Project MOSAIC is motivated by a vision of quantitative education as a mosaic where the basic materials come together to form a complete and compelling picture.

Find out more about Project MOSAIC at [http://mosaic-web.org].

- A few more things have moved to
`mosaicCore`

. - Two of the vignettes have been moved out of the package to reduce CRAN size.
- Several plots now default to using
`ggplot2`

rather than`lattice`

. - Improvements to
`mplot()`

on linear models when system =`"gg"`

. - Work-around added to avoid the old work-around no longer needed due to the updated
`formals()`

.

`xpnorm()`

and friends now use`ggplot2`

and can return the plot object, if requested.`t.test()`

has been completely reimplemented. It no longer supports "bare variable mode", but it is more similar to`stats::t.test()`

in some cases.`gwm()`

has beeen removed since it no longer works with the current version of`dplyr`

.

We anticipate a better collection of modeling utilities in the forthcoming`mosaicModel`

package.`props()`

and`counts()`

have been added. They are a bit like`tally()`

but designed to play well with`df_stats()`

. Currently the formula versions drop missing data, but that will likely be determined by a user-supplied option in the future.- Calculus functions have been moved to
`mosaicCalc`

. `mosaic`

depends on`ggformula`

, so users will have`lattice`

,`ggplot2`

, and`ggformula`

available after loading`mosaic`

.`mplot()`

on a data frame supports`ggformula`

now.- A vignette showing "minimal R" with
`ggformula`

has been added. - A vignette comparing
`lattice`

and`ggformula`

has been added. - Some functions have been move from
`mosaic`

to`mosaicCore`

. This should not affect users of`mosaic`

.

- Tweaks to
`tally()`

now provide names to dimnames in cases where they were previously missing. This was needed for the refactoring of`bargaph()`

. - Refactored
`bargraph()`

to use`tally()`

for tabulation. This means the behavior of`bargraph()`

should match expections of users of`tally()`

better than it did before. In particular, proportions now sum to 1 in each panel of a multi-panel plot. - Bug/Feature fix: Definition of "conditional" is now tighter in
`tally()`

so the proportions computed when`format = "proportion"`

are easier to predict. - Bug Fix:
`prop(x ~ y)`

was reporting overall proportions rather than marginal proportions. - Made CIsim() more flexible. It is now easier to run multiple simulations at once and compare the results. Also, non-covering interals are now classified as missing high or missing low, so one can investigate non-symmetric failure to cover.
- Added option to plotFun() for creating non-interactive surface plots
- Added
`value()`

, a generic with several methods for extracting a "value" from a more complicated object. Useful for extracting values from output of`uniroot()`

,`nlm()`

,`integrate()`

,`cubature::adaptIntegrat()`

without needing to know just how those values are stored in the object. - Replaced use of reshape2 with functions from tidyr to remove dependency on reshape2
- Add spline model as option to mplot.data.frame()

- Bug fix that caused
`prop(a ~ b)`

to compute joint rather than conditional proportions. - add stat and geom for spline smoothing

- Aggregating functions (
`favstats()`

,`mean()`

,`sd()`

, etc.) now require that the first argument be a formula. This was always the preferred method, but some functions allowed bare variable names to be used instead. As a specific example, the following code now generates an error (unless there is another object named`age`

in your environment).

```
favstats(age, data = HELPrct)
## Error in typeof(x) : object 'age' not found
```

Replace this with

```
favstats( ~ age, data = HELPrct)
## min Q1 median Q3 max mean sd n missing
## 19 30 35 40 60 35.65342 7.710266 453 0
```

- A new shiny doc template has been added
- A geom and stat have been added for creating average shifted histograms (ASH plots) using
`ggplot2`

. - Improvements to
`mplot.data.frame()`

allow it to work with an expression that evaluates to a data frame. ASH plots are now a choice for 1-variable plots. `deltaMethod()`

has been moved to a separate package (called`deltaMethod`

) to reduce package dependencies`cull_for_do.lm()`

now returns a data frame instead of a vector. This makes it easier for`do()`

to bind things together by column name.`makeMap()`

updated to work with new version of`ggplot2`

.

- Arguments to
`cdata()`

,`ddata()`

,`pdata()`

,`qdata()`

and`rdata()`

have been reordered so that the formula comes first. - The print method for objects created by
`rflip()`

has been improved. - Bug fix in
`dfapply()`

, also default value for`select`

changed to`TRUE`

. - Introduce
`inspect()`

, which is primarily intended to give an over view of the variables in a data frame, but handles some additional objects as well.

- Aggregating functions now generate user friendly errors when the
`data`

argument is not an environment or data frame. - We have fixed some bugs that arose in the "emergency" release of 0.11
`mm()`

has been deprecated and replaced with`gwm()`

which does groupwise models where the response may be either categorical or quantitative.- Improvements have been made to
`plotModel()`

. This is likely still not the final version, but we are getting closer. - Improvements have been made to naming in objects created with
`do()`

. - Dots in
`dotPlot()`

are now the same size in all panels of multi-panel plots. `cdist()`

has been rewritten.

`mplot()`

on a data frame now (a) prompts the user for the type of plot to create and (b) has an added option to make line plots for time series and the like.`resample()`

can now do residual resampling from a linear model.- Improvements have been made that make it easier to use
`do()`

to create common bootstrap confidence intervals. In particular,`confint()`

can now calculate three kinds of intervals in many common situations. `fetchData()`

,`fetchGoogle()`

, and`fetchGapminder()`

have been moved to a separate package, called`fetch()`

.`plotModel()`

can be used to show data and model fits for a variety of models created with`lm()`

or`glm()`

.

- At the request of several users, and with CRAN's approval, we have made
`mosaicData`

a dependency of`mosaic`

. This avoids the problem of users forgetting to separately load the`mosaicData`

package. - We are planning to remove
`fetchGoogle()`

(and perhaps`read.file()`

) from future versions of the package. More and more packages are providing utilities for bringing data into R and it doesn't make sense for us to duplicate those efforts in this package. For google sheets, you might take a look at the`googlesheets`

package which is avialable via github now and will be on CRAN soon. - Improved output to
`binom.test()`

,`prop.test()`

, and`t.test()`

, which have also undergone some internal restructuring. The objects returned now do a better job of reporting about the test conducted. In particular,`binom.test()`

and`prop.test()`

will report the value of`success`

used.(#450, #455) `binom.test()`

can now compute several different kinds of confidence intervals including the Wald, Plus-4 and Agresti-Coull intervals. (#449)`derivedFactor()`

now handles NAs without throwing a warning. (#451)- Improved
`pdist()`

,`pdist()`

and related functions now do a better (i.e., useful) job with discrete distributions (#417) - Bug fixes in several functions that use non-standard evaluation improve their robustness and scope. This affects
`t.test()`

and all the "aggregating" functions like`mean()`

and`favstats()`

. In particular, it is now possible to reference variables both in the`data`

argument and in the calling environment. (#435) `CIAdata()`

now provides a message indicating the source URL for the data retrieved (#444)- Bug fixes to
`CIAdata()`

that seem to be related to a changed in file format at the CIA World Factobook website. The "inflation" data set is still broken (on the CIA website). (#441) `read.file()`

now uses functions from`readr`

in some cases. A message is produced indicating which reader is being used. There are also some API changes. In particular, character data will be returned as character rather than factor. See`factorize()`

for an easy way to convert things with few unique values into factors. (#442)- A major vignette housecleaning has happened. Some vignettes have been removed from the package and vignettes inside the package are now compiled as part of package building to allow for more consistent checking of vignette contents. "Less Volume, More Creativity" has been reformatted from slides into a more typical vignette format. (#438)
`mutate()`

is used in place of`transform()`

in the examples. (#452)- Some minor tidying of the markdown templates (#454)

`tally()`

now produces counts by default for all formula shapes. Proportions or percentages must be requested explicitly. This is to avoid common errors, especially when feeding the results into`chisq.test()`

.- Introduction of
`msummary()`

. Usually this is identical to`summary()`

, but for a few kids of objects it provides modified output that is less verbose. - By default
`do * lm( )`

will now keep track of the F statistic, too. \item`confint()`

applied to an object produced using`do()`

now does more appropriate things. `binom.test()`

and`prop.test()`

now set`success = 1`

by default on 0-1 data to treat 0 like failure and 1 like success. Similarly,`prop()`

and`count()`

set`level = 1`

by default.`CIsim()`

can now produce plots and does so by default when`samples <= 200`

.- implementation of
`add=TRUE`

improved for`plotDist()`

. - Added
`swap()`

which is useful for creating randomization distributions for paired designs. The current implementation is a bit slow.

We will improve that by implementing part of the code in C++. - Some additional functions are now formula-aware:
`MAD()`

,`SAD()`

, and`quantile()`

. `docFile()`

introduced to simplify accessing files included with package documentation.`read.file()`

enhanced to take a package as an argument and look among package documentation files.`factorize()`

introduced as a way to convert vectors with few unique values into factors. Can be applied to an entire data frame.

- The data sets formerly in this pacakge have been separated out into two
additional packages:
`NHANES`

contains the`NHANES`

data set and`mosaicData`

contains the other data sets. `MAD()`

and`SAD()`

were added to compute mean and sum of all pairs of absolute differences.- Facilities for making choropleth maps has been added. The API for these tools is still under development and may change in future releases.
`rspin()`

has been added to simulate spinning a spinner.- Two additional vignettes are included. Less Volume, More Creativity
outlines how to use the
`mosaic`

package to simplify R for beginners.

The other vignette illustrates many of the plotting features added by the`mosaic`

package. - The mosaic package now contains two RMarkdown templates (one fancy and one plain).
`plotFun()`

has been improved so that it does a better job of selecting points where the function is evaluated and no longer warns about`NaN`

s encountered while exploring the domain of the function.`oddsRatio()`

has been redesigned and`relrisk()`

has been added. Use their`summary()`

methods or`verbose=TRUE`

to see more information (including confidence intervals).- Added
`Birthdays`

data set.

- A generic
`mplot()`

and several instances have been added to make a number of plots easy to generate. There are methods for objects of classes`"data.frame"`

,`"lm"`

,`"summary.lm"`

,`"glm"`

,`"summary.glm"`

,`"TukeyHSD"`

, and`"hclust"`

. For several of these there are also`fortify`

methods that return the data frame created to facilitate plotting. `read.file()`

now handles (some?) https URLs and accepts an optional argument`filetype`

that can be used to declare the type of data file when it is not identified by extension.- The default for
`useNA`

in the`tally()`

function has changed to`"ifany"`

. `mosaic`

now depends on`dplyr`

both to use some of its functionality and to avoid naming collisions with functions like`tally()`

and`do()`

, allowing`mosaic`

and`dplyr`

to coexist more happily.- some improvements to dot plots with
`dotPlot()`

. In particular, the size of the dots is determined differently and works better more of the time. Dots were also shifted down by .5 units so that they

do not hover above the x-axis so much. This means that (with default sizing) the tops of the dots are approximately located at a height equivalent to the number of dots rather than the center of the dots. - fixed a bug in
`do()`

that caused it to scope incorrectly in some edge cases when a variable had the same name as a function. `ntiles()`

has been reimplemented and now has more formatting options.- introduction of
`derivedFactor()`

for creating factors from logical "cases".

- The
`HELP`

data set has been removed from the package.

It was deprecated in version 0.5. Use`HELPrct`

instead. `plotDist()`

now accepts`add=TRUE`

and`under=TRUE`

, making it easy to add plots of distributions over (or under) plots of data (e.g., histograms, densityplots, etc.) or other distributions.- Plotting funcitons with with the option
`add=TRUE`

have been reimplemented using`layer`

from`latticeExtra`

. See documentaiton of these functions for details. `ladd()`

has been completely reimplemented using`layer()`

from`latticeExtra`

. See documentation of`ladd()`

for details, including some behavior changes.- aggregating functions (
`mean()`

,`sd()`

,`var()`

, et al) now use`getOptions("na.rm")`

to determine the default value of`na.rm`

. Use`options(na.rm=TRUE)`

to change the default behavior to remove`NA`

s and options(na.rm=NULL) to restore defaults. `do()`

has been largely rewritten with an eye toward improved efficiency. In particular,`do()`

will take advantage of multiple cores if the`parallel`

package is available. At this point, sluggishness in applications of`do()`

are mostly likely due to the sluggishness of what is being done, not to`do()`

itself.- Added an additional method to
`deltaMethod()`

from the`car`

package to make it easier to propagate uncertainty in some situations that commonly arise in the physical sciences and engineering. - Added
`cdist()`

to compute critical values for the central portion of a distribution. - Some changes to the API for
`qdata()`

. For interactive use, this should not cause any problems, but old programmatic uses of`qdata()`

should be checked as the object returned is now different. - Fixed a bug that caused aggregating functions (
`sum()`

,`mean()`

,`sd()`

, etc.) to produce counter-intuititve results (but with a warning). The results are now what one would expect (and the warning is removed). - Added
`rsquared()`

for extracting r-squared from models and model-like objects (`r.squared()`

has been deprecated). `do()`

now handles ANOVA-like objects better`maggregate()`

is now built on some improved behind the scenes functions. Among other features, the`groups`

argument is now incorporated as an alternative method of specifying the goups to aggregate over and the`method`

argument can be set to`"ddply"`

to use`ddply()`

from the`plyr`

package for aggregation. This results in a different output format that may be desired in some applications. \item The`cdata()`

,`pdata()`

and`qdata()`

functions have been largely rewritten. In addition,`cdata_f()`

,`pdata_f()`

and`qdata_f()`

are provided which produce similar results but have a formula in the first arguemnt slot.- Fixed bug in vignette generation. Static PDFs are now installed in
`doc/`

and so are available from within the package as well as via links to external files. - Added
`fetchGapminder()`

for fetching data sets originally from Gapminder. - Added
`cdata()`

for finding end points of a central portion of a variable. - Name changes in functions like
`prop()`

to avoid internal`:`

which makes downstream processing messier. - Improved detection of the availability of
`manipulate()`

(RStudio) - Surface plots produced by
`plotFun()`

can be used without`manipulate()`

. This makes it possible to put surface plots into RMarkdown or Rnw files or to generate them outside of RStudio. `do() * rflip()`

now records proportion heads as well as counts of heads and tails.- Added functions
`mosaicLatticeOptions()`

and`restoreLatticeOptions()`

to switch back and forth between`lattice`

defaults and`mosaic`

defaults. `dotPlot()`

uses a different algorithm to determine dot sizes. (Still not perfect, but`cex`

can be used to further scale the dots.)- adjustments to
`histogram()`

so that`nint`

matches the number of bins used more accurately. - fixed coding error in the HELP datasets so that
`i2`

: max number of drinks is at least as large as`i1`

: the average number of drinks. - removed the deprecated HELP dataset (now called HELPrct)
- Various minor bug fixes and internal improvements.

- Various improvements and bug fixes to
`D()`

and`antiD()`

. - In RStudio,
`mPlot()`

provides an interactive environment for creating`lattice`

and`ggplot2`

plots. - Some support for producing maps has been introduced, notably
`sp2df()`

for converting SpatialPolygonDataFrames to regular data frames (which is useful for plotting with`ggplot2`

, for example). Also the`Countries`

data frame facilitates mapping country names among different sources of map data. - Data frames returned by
`do()`

are now marked as such so that`confint()`

can behave differently for such data frames and for "regular" data frames. `t.test()`

can now do 1-sample t-test described using a formula.- Aggregating functions (e.g.
`mean()`

,`var()`

, etc. using a formula interface) have been completely reimplemented and additional aggregating functions are provided. - An
`ntiles()`

function has been added to facilitate creating factors based on quantile ranges. - Changes in format to
`RailTrail`

dataset. - Minor changes in documentation.
- Added vignettes: Starting with R and A Compendium of Commands to Teach Statistics.
- Plan to deprecate datasets from the Carnegie Melon University Online Learning Initiative Statistics Modules in next release.
`xhistogram()`

is now deprecated. Use`histogram()`

instead.

- Added vignette: Minimal R for Intro Stats.
- Implemented symbolic integration for simple functions.
- Aggregating functions (
`mean()`

,`max()`

,`median()`

,`var()`

, etc.) now use`getOption('na.rm')`

to determine default behavior. - Various bug fixes in
`var()`

allow it to work in a wider range of situations. - Augmented
`TukeyHSD()`

so that explicit use of`aov()`

is no longer required - Added
`panel.lmbands()`

for plotting confidence and prediction bands in linear regression - Some data cleaning in the Carnegie Melon University Online Learning Initiative Statistics Modules. In particular
the name collision with
`Animals`

from`MASS`

has been removed by renaming the data set`GestationLongevity`

. - Added
`freqpolygon()`

for making frequency polygons. - Added
`r.squared()`

for extracting r-squared from models and model-like objects. - Modified names of data frame produced by
`do()`

so that hyphens ('-') are turned into dots ('.') - Improvements to
`fetchData()`

.

We are still in beta, but we hope things are beginning to stabilize as we settle on syntax and coding idioms for the package. Here are some of the key updates since 0.4:

- removed dependency on RCurl since it caused installation problems for some PC users. (Code requiring RCurl now checks at run time whether the package is available.)
- further improvements to formula interfaces to common functions. The conditional | now works in more situations and & has been replaced by + so that formulas look more like the formulas
used in
`lm()`

and its cousins. - inclusion of the datasets from the Carnegie Mellon University Online Learning Initiative Statistics modules. These are in alpha form and some additional
data cleaning and renaming may happen in the near future.
\item
`makeFun()`

now has methods for glm and nls objects `D()`

improved to use symbolic differentiation in more cases and allow pass through to`stats::D()`

when that makes sense. This allows functions like deltaMethod() from the car package to work properly even when the mosaic package is loaded.- The API for
`antiD()`

has been modified somewhat. This may go through another revision if/when we add in symbolic differentiation, but we think we are now close to the end state. - The HELP dataset has been replaced by the HELPrct dataset, and the former will be deprecated in the next release.
- The CPS data set has been renamed CPS85.
`fitSpline()`

and`fitModel()`

have been added as wrappers around linear models using ns(), bs(), and nls(). Each of these returns the model fit as a function.- improvements to the vignettes.

- renamed mtable() to tally(), added new functionality
- reimplemented D() and antiD()
- improvements to statTally()
- new confint() functionality
- makeFun() and plotFun() interface to plotting using formulas
- added new vignette on Teaching Calculus using R
- added new vignette on Resampling-Based Inference using R
- changed default behavior for aggregating functions na.rm option so that it defaults to usual behavior unless given a formula as argument